The Common Denominator (Part II)

Copyright by Charles C. Craver
Arabian Horse World March 1984
(used by permission of CCCraver)

Davenport was determined to get horses that were in the tradition of the best importers before him. Davenport called these horses “chubby,” a term which is synonymous with the more frequently used term “asil” and which apparently derives from the Arabic word “shabbuh,” meaning “suitable to breed from.” Qualification upon this point was strictly a matter of purity of breed, and the Arabs were fanatic about it. On his expedition, Davenport writes that in the process of closing a deal for a horse,

when a price was finally agreed upon, Haffez always called me and the Bedouin to him. Taking the right hand of each of us, he would join them; then laying one of his hands over ours and pointing up, he would ask the Bedouin if he would swear before God that everything he said was true, and if he would be willing, with God as a witness to ask the Sheikh of the Tribe to put his seal on the bargain. Then if the Bedouin said yes, Haffez would toss the hands up, and the deal was closed.” (11)

Such an oath requirement might do some good at Arabian sales today. In the theistic Bedouin society of 1906, it was powerful medicine. An illustration of its effect was seen at a village where a Circassian offered a beautiful filly for sale. Davenport writes,

I asked the Circassian if she was ‘Chubby,’ and he told me ‘Yes.’ When Haffez came out, he said ‘Chubby?’ and the Circassian told him ‘Yes.’ I saw a Bedouin whisper to Haffez, and the latter ran over and gripped the Circassian by the right hand, and asked him to say to God that she was ‘Chubby.’ If you ever saw a fellow pull loose quick, it was this Circassian. He yelled in his efforts to get away, and at the same time saying the mare was ‘Chubby’ to me, but not to God.” (12)

Davenport seems to have been unique among the major importers in the great attention he paid to the opinions of the Bedouins concerning points of merit in their own horse. Most purchasers from the West went to Arabia to buy horses as much as possible like the ones they knew at home, which were not plentiful or desired in Arabia. Davenport instead wanted to buy horses which were good Arabians by Bedouin standards. The difference in horses chosen was considerable, (13) and it probably accounts for Davenport’s accomplishment in purchasing 27 appropriate horses in a short time, while several European remount commissions of the same era roamed Arabia for far longer periods of time and found only a few acceptable horses. (14) The Bedouins, according to Davenport, had scant respect for European standards of horsemanship. Davenport comments:

The Bedouins we met laughed over the few Europeans they had seen coming to buy stallions for the various European governments. These men, they said, instead of looking at the horse’s head, looked first at his feet and ankles. They could not understand that. If they were going to trust me with their purses and, what was more, their life, they declared they would look first for 20 minutes in my face and eyes and not pay so much attention to my feet. While it was, of course, understood that a horse’s legs and feet should be perfect, still a horse showed even what his legs were made of by his head and no horse was ever better or worse than what his head showed. They defied me to pick out one of the distinguished war mares that did not show her distinctive characteristics more plainly in her head than in the rest of her makeup. And I found they were right. (15)

It is surprising how many of the importations of desert Arabians to Egypt, Europe, India, and America have been made by third parties, often dealers of one sort or another. Even in Arabia, horses frequently changed hands by means of “agheyls,” who were horse and camel traders who traveled from tribe to tribe. Davenport’s expedition is one of the few of record in which there was a direct, face-to-face relationship between the final buyer of desert breeding stock and the initial Bedouin seller. There is a difference in horse deals which are made in this way, whether in Arabia or 1906, or in America, now.

With the help of Akmet Haffez, and according to the standards described. Davenport obtained 27 horses: ten females and seventeen males. Most of the males were colts, as standard item of export from the horse-breeding tribes of Arabia. Davenport comments that he bought colts from mares which the Bedouins would not sell. (16) There were several adult stallions, sufficient in number to provide stallion service for the mares of the importation after arrival in America. If the number of males purchased seems excessive, it ought to be kept in mind that one of the purposes of the importation was to establish a remount stud, to which extra stallions would be a benefit. Furthermore, colts were probably cheap, and the costs of actual importations per animal were so low that several Sicilian donkeys were brought along as incidentals. (17)

Even with the help of Akmet Haffez, Davenport had difficulty in buying mares directly from the Bedouins. By simple purchase, he acquired *Farha 42, *Hadbah 43, *Enzahi 46, and *Werdi 41. The additional mares necessary to round out the importation were obtained one way or another through Akmet Haffez, from whom *Wadduda 30 and *Haffia 45 were received as gifts, and *Abeyah 39 and *Jedah 44 were purchased. Akmet Haffez also arranged the forced expropriation of *Urfah 40 from her Bedouin owner and the purchase of *Reshan 38 from General Hassin Tahssin Pasha, who had obtained her from the Anazeh.

The complete package of 27 head (plus three fillies and a colt in utero) was an importation of extraordinary size to come from desert Arabia. Historically, most other importations have been much smaller in number, but then they weren’t sponsored by both the President of the United States and the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, nor have they been carried out by people with the special attributes of Homer Davenport and Akmet Haffez.

Arabia was supposed to be an uncivilized place, but, when Davenport returned to the United States, he found that his reception was much less cordial than it had been in the tents of the Arabs. Partly this was his own fault: he was a newspaperman whose game was publicity. Maybe he overdid himself a bit by dramatizing his own trip to the desert (and publicly criticizing other people’s horses) in a magazine article published in the August 1906 issue of Country Life in America. Several of the other breeders in the country, led by Spencer Borden, reacted adversely to publicity of this sort. Their response was not entirely unreasonable, because at first glance the success of the trip was too improbable for easy belief. Arabia was a distant and difficult place, and its horses were not casually obtained. For Davenport, who was an artist with no particular experience in travel, to have gone there and returned with a large number of authentic horses after a trip which lasted only a few months was on the face of it an unlikely achievement. Years later, in a letter to W.R. Brown, Spencer Borden wrote of Davenport,

His expedition to Aleppo, and bringing back so many good horses, real Arabs, was a feat without an example. I did not believe it possible till I talked with him, and saw the animals. I do not think they were all equally good, but some were excellent.” (18)

So it took time for them to be accepted for the horses of the desert which they really were.

Public acceptance of the newly-imported horses was delayed when the Jockey Club, which at that time registered Arabians in this country, failed to register the horses. According to W.R. Brown, when the Jockey Club asked for additional information about the imported horses, Davenport reacted adversely and began to cartoon August Belmont, president of the Jockey Club. Things got worse, and finally registration became administratively impossible. The situation was probably greatly aggravated by personal animosities in the new American Arabian community of the day. (19)

The official position taken by the Jockey Club was that it would register only Arabian horses which were acceptable to the General Stud Book of England (although it had previously registered several horses not in this category, including *Nejdme 1, *Leopard 233, and *Linden Tree 234, and it did register *Beaming Star, a horse Jack Thompson had picked up in Beirut on the way home and brought along for resale). This effectively left out the Davenport imports as well as a number of other Arabians which had come to this country. The desert pedigree documentation of the Davenports was even returned to Arabia, where U.S. consular officials verified each pedigree with its Bedouin signatories, (20) but to no purpose as far as the Jockey Club was concerned. Finally, some years after Davenport’s death, Lady Anne Blunt authenticated the pedigree of *Urfah 40 and her son *Euphrates 36 at the request of W.R. Brown. These two Davenport Arabians were then accepted by the Jockey Club. By implication, this acceptance could have been extrapolated to the rest of the importation, but the effort to do so was not made. By then, Arabian breeders in America under the leadership of Davenport and Bradley had formed the Arabian Horse Club to provide a registry of their own for the Arabian horse so that Jockey Club registration was no longer of importance to most Arabian owners. Nevertheless, for some years many Arabians were registered in the stud books of both the Arabian Horse Club and the Jockey Club. For some owners, it was a selling point for an Arabian to have “double registration.” Eventually the Jockey Club dropped out of the Arabian field altogether, leaving the Arabian Horse Club and its successor, the Arabian Horse Registry, as sole registering agencies for the breed.

In correspondence enroute home, (21) in his book, and elsewhere, Davenport indicates that there were 27 horses in the desert importation, but only 24 of these were actually registered by the Arabian Horse Club. They were: *Haleb 25, *Houran 26, *Muson 27, *Hamrah 28, *El Bulad 29, *Wadduda 30, *Gomusa 31, *Azra 32, *Deyr 33, *Mowarda 34, *Kusof 35, *Euphrates 36, *Antar 37, *Reshan 38, *Abeyah 39, *Urfah 40, *Werdi 41, *Farha 42, *Hadba 43, *Jedah 44, *Haffia 45, *Enzahi 46, *Masoud 64, *Abbeian 111. In addition, *Moharra 47, Sebha 59, Meleky 63, and Saleefy 70, were imported in utero. Of these, all but four (*Mowarda, *Antar, *Enzahi, and *Masoud) are represented in the pedigrees of currently living Arabian horses.

One of the three unregistered desert imports can be identified as a Mu’niqi given by the Bedouins to Arthur Moore. His desert pedigree and a picture of him are of record. A pedigree also exists for an unregistered male named Simri. A note written on this pedigree indicates Simri was gelded. Possibly the third unregistered horses was also in the category of a gift horse to Moore or Thompson.

When Davenport’s importation arrived in America, the horses were divided into two groups, with some of them staying with Homer Davenport and the majority going to Peter Bradley’s Hingham Stock Farm. For public purposes, the horses were handed as a legally incorporated unit under the name Davenport Desert Arabian Stud (22) for some time with joint advertising, cataloging and registration. Eventually a rift developed between Bradley and Davenport. Whether it was ever healed is not clear, but after Davenport’s death in 1912, several of Davenport’s horses, including his share of the mares of the desert importation, ended up with Bradley. So it appears that Bradley acted to keep the mares of the desert importation together. For practical purposes, following their arrival in the United States in 1906, whether they were in the possession of Davenport or Bradley, all of the females of the importation were bred almost exclusively to stallions of the importation bloodlines.

Since he had more of them and was able to continue their breeding longer than Davenport, the major credit for establishing the Davenport bloodlines as a breeding group goes to Peter Bradley. From 1906 until his last Davenport foal in 1925, the primary thrust of his Arabian venture was the development of his Davenport bloodlines. In all, counting his association with Davenport, Bradley was involved in the production of 94 Davenport foals. His primary stallions were *Hamrah 28 and *Deyr 33, but consideration of his overall production of foals makes it clear that he made a point of giving other stallions from the original importation their opportunities as well, even if it meant that some of them were “stockpiled” for years without being used. *Azra 32, for instance, did not have his first foal until 1921, 15 years after the 1906 importation. Bradley also used some of his younger stallions that were one generation removed from the desert imports, including Maleik (*Haleb x *Abeyah), Letan (*Muson x *Jedah), Fartak (*El Bulad x *Farha) and Harara (*Deyr x *Haffia).

As Bradley phased out of Arabian breeding, F.E. Lewis II of the Diamond Bar Ranch began a short but influential career as a Davenport breeder. He is especially remembered for having produced Antez (Harara x Moliah (*Hamrah x *Wadduda)). A number of the Lewis horses went to the Kellogg ranch where other Davenport horses were also collected, including Jadaan (*Abbeian x Amran (*Deyr x *Wadduda)) and Hanad (*Deyr x Sankirah (*Hamrah x Moliah)). At the Kellogg ranch, the Davenport horses were bred to each other to a certain extent, producing in all a total of 18 individuals of Davenport bloodlines, but they were also used in crossing with other bloodlines. Much of the influence of the Davenport importation on the Arabian breed in America is traceable to these outcross breedings. This may have been a loss from the point of view of Davenport breeding, but the gain to other bloodlines has been a lasting benefit in American breeding.

Davenport horses were particularly successful in meeting the public while at the Kellogg ranch. Hanad, Antez, Letan, and Jadaan were all used in the movie industry, with Jadaan achieving particular fame as Rudolph Valentino’s mount in The Son of the Sheik. There were show success in competition with the best of the imported English stock, and the horses were used in the famous Sunday exhibitions, where Hanad was particularly known for a high school and trick routine featuring the Spanish walk and a rope-jumping trick.

The last Davenport foal bred at Kellogg’s was Hanilla (Hanad x Killah (*Gomusa x *Hadba)), foaled May 22, 1934. After that, there was a nationwide hiatus in the systematic breeding of horses of exclusively Davenport lines, with only a few continuing to be produced here and there. One of our national failings as livestock breeders is that we are inclined to pursue the breeding of the newly fashionable bloodline — usually of recent importation — to the neglect of what is already established. (23) This seems to be a universally-applied process, and every new line of breeding, however popular at its start in this country, may have a period of obscurity. The Davenports, of course, had been here a long time, and they were easily overlooked. This was especially the case because the Davenport mares crossed extremely well with some of the more fashionable and newer bloodlines. There was a tendency, therefore, for the outcross breeding to be more common, causing the number of replacement Davenport foals to dwindle.

Following World War II, a spurt of purist breeding, carried on under the influence of Carl Raswan, occurred in California and elsewhere. Davenports shared in the moment of revival. No particular breeding programs were developed to foster them, but various breeders interested themselves in breeding Davenport mares to Davenport stallions. Among them were Alice Payne and her son Pat, Jimmie Wrench, John Douthit, Dr. H.D. Beauchamp, Dr. and Mrs. J.J. Sullivan, Reba Troxell and Ester Oliver, Mr. and Mrs. J.G. MacConnell, and Margaret Shuey. The salvage effort would not have been possible had it not been for the ability of Davenport breeding stock to remain productive in old age. Hanad was 25 when his son Ibn Hanad (ex Gamil) was born and 26 at the birth of Tripoli (Hanad x Poka). Antez sired Antan (ex Gamil) at the age of 23. Salan (Antez x Fasal(*Hamrah x Amran)) was 20 when he sired Kamil Ibn Salan (x Schada).

This salvage effort extended by one more generation most of the existing Davenport lines. Beginning in 1955, this new generation of Davenport breeding began to be systematically assembled in several breeding ventures. At that point in time, there were about as many living Davenports as had been in the original importations — approximately 25, some rather advanced in age. At one time of another the effort was made by some interested breeder to return to Davenport breeding each of these which seemed to have a prospect of making a positive contribution towards re-establishment of the bloodline. Eventually, fifteen individuals were utilized. Their pedigrees represented all but one of the imported females of 1906 (the exception being *Enzahi 46 whose dam and sire both left lines of descent through other offspring). Living representation from the imported stallions was not quite so comprehensive, but descendants of six of the fourteen registered survived.

In the years since 1955, this determination — perhaps it was stubbornness — persisted and the number of horses tracing entirely to the original bloodlines has grown. There are now about 350 living animals in the hands of over 70 owners. Among Arabian bloodlines which have been maintained without outcrossing, these Davenports are the oldest example of American breeding and one of the two oldest to be found anywhere. Their seniority as a bloodline is of interest, but it is much more significant that the Davenports maintained a continuity of type with the original imported horses, as can be determined by comparing living animals with pictures and written descriptions of the imported horses. From time to time, individual living Davenports show up which have a marked resemblance to specific individuals of the desert importation. One can see, for instance, a living Davenport which obviously follows the biotype of a *Muson 27, a *Hamrah 28, or a *Wadduda 30.

By informed standards in overall physical appearance, most living Davenports are representative of authentic desert Arabian type. They tend to be of moderate size, have a fine skin and hair coat. Among them the percentage of large eyes, expressive ears, and wide jaws is high. Cranial boxes are large, hips long. People comment about the beautiful action — the flexibility and the freedom of movement which they possess. They are typically quiet and amenable to training, although, of course, some individuals require more horsemanship than others. The Davenports are still close enough to the desert so that the characteristics of the basic Bedouin strains show clearly in them, especially when the effort is made to develop their pedigrees according to strain considerations.

To an extent it is true that Davenports are an old-fashioned type of Arabian. Like other Arabians of specialized genetic character, they do not show all the spectacular characteristics of the most successful outcross horses. However, they do offer to people who wish to breed that kind of horse a breeding resource that is consistent in its influence, and of proven benefit in the production of superior horses when used wisely.

After all, the currently living Davenport horses amount to only 350 head. Of far greater importance to Arabian breeding is the Davenport presence in the pedigrees of the general population of Arabian horses. In the years immediately following the importation of 1906, this was high, if for no other reason than that the importation was a large one, and the total number of horses in the country was small. As time passed, other importations of Arabians were made, and the importance of the Davenport bloodlines could have been expected to dwindle accordingly. This did happen with horses that were entirely of Davenport background, which have never been bred in large numbers, but the presence of Davenport bloodlines in the breed as a whole has remained surprisingly high through their combinations with bloodlines of other sources. Such matings have been made right along, beginning with the arrival of the importation in 1906. The Davenport influence began to be especially apparent, however, as the produce of Peter Bradley’s Hingham Stock Farm entered the mainstream of American breeding.

An indication of the extent to which this is true is documented by Dr. Ameen Zaher’s statistical analysis of the Arabian breed in America, in Arabian Horse Breeding and the Arabians of America. In this book, it is reported that Peter Bradley’s primary Davenport stallion, *Hamrah 28, had a higher relationship to the breed through 1946 than any other individual in the AHCR studbooks. (24) Many of the other Davenport bloodlines contribute to the total Davenport influence as well. Some years after Zaher’s work, Volume 20 (1971) of the AHCR studbooks was analyzed statistically by calculating the percentage of Davenport ancestry in every 100th animal in its series of registrations. It was found that 96.6% of the registrations traced to the animals of the Davenport importation at an average level of 12.56%. (25) Jeanne Craver did a parallel study of Volume 30 (1976), in which she found that 88.75% of the horses registered traced to Davenport ancestry at an average level of 12.21%. In round numbers, it thus appears that about 90% of living American Arabian horses trace to Davenport sources for about 12% of their total ancestry. this is nearly the equivalent percentage to what is contributed by one great-grandparent.

Generally speaking, in American pedigrees, crosses to Davenport breeding multiply with each generation. It is unusual to find a pedigree where both sire and dam represent two generations of American breeding without some Davenport pedigree elements. It is very rare to find such a three-generation pedigree elements. It is very rare to find such a three-generation pedigree with none. In Jeanne Craver’s statistical sample of every 100th animal from Volume 30 of the AHR studbooks, for instance, only one of 23 three-generation American pedigrees showed no Davenport elements. Arabian horses of multiple generations of American breeding which do not trace to Davenport lines do occur, of course. They are usually examples of specialty breeding programs which are not typical of general Arabian horse production in the United States (for example, Babson Egyptian breeding).

In the years since the Davenport foundation stock was imported in 1906, there has been abundant opportunity through the passage of time and other adverse events for its influence to be bred out of Arabian breeding, and for the Davenports as a breeding group to become extinct. That this has not happened is an indication that there are contributions from those desertbred horses of the past which especially suit their descendants for life in the United States.

If some miracle of communication could bring Homer Davenport back today, a little over three-quarters of a century since he started it all by his trip to the desert, he would no doubt find the size and diversity of our national enterprise with Arabian horses astounding. No one of his own time could reasonably have expected the seventy-one registrations of the first 1909 stud book of the Arabian Horse Club to eventually grow to be the 268,000 of 1983. No doubt he would have been gratified that his own importation has contributed so fundamentally to the whole that it could accurately be termed a common and distinguishing denominator of the breed in America: the major element almost all American Arabians have which is not found in a significant way in Arabians of other countries.

As to types of Arabians, well, if he wanted to see something similar to his desert imports and the ones he and Peter Bradley raised from them, he could look at that enduring little group of Davenports which are entirely their descendants.

The precursors of other groups of horses now in America would also be familiar to him. He had some of the best Crabbet horses, including *Abu Zeyd (Mesaoud x Rose Diamond). Others he knew from stock owned by such contemporary importers as Spencer Borden, and from his own travels to Crabbet Park. For Egyptian type, he could look to *Shahwan and *Ghazala, whose pedigrees have not since been surpassed. He even knew the racehorse types of Randolph Huntington’s Mu’niqi group. As far as Russian Arabians are concerned, he must have known *Gouniad, who was representative of some of the bloodlines and breeding rationale of Eastern-European Arabian breeding popular in this country today.

But could he have been prepared for what we have made of our horses? One would hope he would find the well-proportioned, sound, athletic beauties of American breeding to his liking, and, from his writing, we know he would have enjoyed the variety of performance tasks our Arabians are put to at the shows. Somehow one wonders what he would have thought of a modern park class. Perhaps he would share some of the prejudices he attributes in his book to Said Abdallah, the boy who came from Arabia with the horses to help take care of them. At the National Horse Show of the day, this boy saw

… for the first time, a good team of high-action horses. At first his eyes nearly bulged form their sockets. He held up his hands in horror as he exclaimed

“Mashalla! Mashallah! Is there truly a race of horses that go up and down in the same place?

When told that what he saw was the result of training and artificial breeding, and that the horse himself was not to blame, he uttered an exclamation of pity. Then he said suddenly: “No,” and pointing above him,

“the desert isn’t up there, but always in front of you; God made a horse to get over it with the least effort, not the most!'”(27)

Davenport would find his own long-term view of the place of Arabian horses in the American culture to be well-fulfilled by what has happened since his day. He was one of the first to recognize the special value of the Arabian as a companion animal. Just before his trip to Arabia in 1906, he had written:

In this, the beginning of the horseless age, it seems idle to advocate horses of any sort; yet I must maintain that the Arabian horse has a distinct place awaiting him…The place is the family stable, where by virtue of his size, strength, speed, sweet temper, docility, and thriving habit, he is especially qualified to be the friendly comrade and servant of women, little children and elderly people. (28)

This view of the future of the Arabian horse may have seemed overly sentimental to others of our foundation breeders, who often had grander goals, such as the rejuvenation of other breeds, or the production of cavalry horses or polo mounts, but as things have worked out only a few Arabians are used for those purposes now. The fact is that most current Arabians are backyard horses whose main function is to furnish that gift of companionship which is special to the Arabian horse. As Davenport predicted, a good many of these horses are looked after on a daily basis by the women and children of the families owning them — just as they were cared for in the desert of Arabia. He could be proud that the bloodlines that carry his name are noted as contributing those characteristics of disposition that cause the Arabian horses to have its distinctive place in the family stable, which, after all, is the closest thing we have to the tents of the Bedouins.



(11) Davenport: My Quest, pp. 120-121.

(12) Ibid., pp. 131-132.

(13) In his instructions to potential sellers of horses to Davenport, Akmet Haffez said, “Those of you who have horses for sale that are ‘chubby’ he will talk with, but other horses need not be shown. Let it be a matter of your personal pride that he takes from the desert only such horses and mares as the Anazeh themselves would want to have — not meaning only such animals as the European governments would sue.” Ibid., p. 112.

(14) Europeans evidently had difficulty accepting the small, light frame of the desert war horse. “The Anasee El Sbaa: This group has the most tents, families and horses, but the horses are lacking in size of bone and size in general…The two riders coming up to us belong to the El Sbaa and their horses are very noble, the foals running behind their dams were beautiful, but again much too finely built and not suitable for our purpose.” Edward Loffler: The Austrian Horse Buying Commission under R.V. Brudermann in Syria, Palestine and the Desert Horse From 1856-1857, originally published Troppau, 1860, reprinted by Olms Press, Hildesheim and New York, 1978, pp. 101 and 136. Translation of these quotations by Frank Hannesschlager.

(15) Davenport: My Quest, p. 244.

(16) New York Times, November 25, 1906.

(17) In a letter, Davenport commented about the expense of the importation per head as follows: “We found that they cost us about $1,000 apiece to land in New York and that with the hardships have quite satisfied us with the one importation.” Homer Davenport to Harry Hamilton Loughlin, February 10, 1910. Letter furnished by Dr. James Keith. While the amount does not seem great by today’s standards, it ought to be remembered that in 1906 a very nice house in a good location could be purchased for $5,000.

(18) Borden, Spencer to W.R. Brown, February 12, 1918.

(19) Brown, W.R. to H.V. Tormohlen, October 12, 1927.

(20) Ravndal, Velma H.: “New Light on the Davenport 1906 Imports,” in the International Arabian Horse, May, 1964, p. 18.

(21) Davenport, Homer to his family, September 16, 1906.

(22) Davenport, Homer: “The Davenport Desert Arabian Stud,” catalog privately published, 1906-1907, cover.

(23) “Room must now be made for a remark or two on what is, after all, the cardinal feature of the Bedouin’s practice of horse-breeding — the source at once of his strength and weakness — his unbounded faith in purity of blood. A large class of our countrymen, it is said, never see a sunny day without wanting to go out and shoot something. And the sight of a fine horse or mare seems naturally to suggest to many other good people the idea of crossing it with one of a different variety.” Major-General W. Tweedie: The Arabian Horse, His Country and People, Borden Publishing Company, Los Angeles, 1961 reproduced from original English edition of 1894, p. 137.

(24) Zaher, Dr. Ameen: Arabian Horse Breeding and the Arabians of America, Cairo University Press, 1961, p. 70.

(25) Craver, Charles: “At the Beginning,” in The Arabian Horse News, May 1974.

(26) Ibid.

(27) Davenport: My Quest, p. 227.

(28) Davenport: “The Arabian Horse — Its Present Place and Mission,” in Country Life in America. Vol. X, No. 4, August, 1906, p. 429.